Natural Perfume Wheel designed by respected perfumer and author, Mandy Aftel. It is a useful tool for anyone in the flavor and fragrance industry. For a natural perfumer the top, middle and base notes are identified and the natural graduation of character is also visually tracked. One hundred and fifteen ingredients are featured and then funneled into 28 groupings that are then placed into one of 14 final categories. In the case of Labdanum, for instance, it is identified as amber and balsamic. In the next grouping on the wheel is opopanax that is classified as caramel and balsamic. One would expect the two oils would produce a pairing that would be balsamic certainly but would also have caramel and amber facets. This pairing would be nice but would lack top and middle notes. To produce a better more complex perfume it would be necessary to add ingredients like styrax and bitter almond. Although these ingredients are very near to the single balsamic profile each brings more depth and completeness to the final blend. It is also useful to consult the Aftelier Natural Perfume Wheel to design perfume bases. A natural perfumer should design several bases to use in future designs. The bases help, using the wheel, to ensure the design covers the olfactory spectrum. For a novice this is an essential tool. For the expert it is still a useful and practical reminder.